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Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:hebis:34-2012103142064

Title: Development of directly modulated high speed telecommunication lasers based on surface defined feedback gratings
Authors: Afzal, Sohaib
???metadata.dc.subject.swd???: HalbleiterlaserÄtzen
???metadata.dc.subject.ddc???: 530 - Physik (Physics)
Issue Date: 31-Oct-2012
Abstract: High-speed semiconductor lasers are an integral part in the implemen- tation of high-bit-rate optical communications systems. They are com- pact, rugged, reliable, long-lived, and relatively inexpensive sources of coherent light. Due to the very low attenuation window that exists in the silica based optical fiber at 1.55 μm and the zero dispersion point at 1.3 μm, they have become the mainstay of optical fiber com- munication systems. For the fabrication of lasers with gratings such as, distributed bragg reflector or distributed feedback lasers, etching is the most critical step. Etching defines the lateral dimmensions of the structure which determines the performance of optoelectronic devices. In this thesis studies and experiments were carried out about the exist- ing etching processes for InP and a novel dry etching process was de- veloped. The newly developed process was based on Cl2/CH4/H2/Ar chemistry and resulted in very smooth surfaces and vertical side walls. With this process the grating definition was significantly improved as compared to other technological developments in the respective field. A surface defined grating definition approach is used in this thesis work which does not require any re-growth steps and makes the whole fabrication process simpler and cost effective. Moreover, this grating fabrication process is fully compatible with nano-imprint lithography and can be used for high throughput low-cost manufacturing. With usual etching techniques reported before it is not possible to etch very deep because of aspect ratio dependent etching phenomenon where with increasing etch depth the etch rate slows down resulting in non-vertical side walls and footing effects. Although with our de- veloped process quite vertical side walls were achieved but footing was still a problem. To overcome the challenges related to grating defini- tion and deep etching, a completely new three step gas chopping dry etching process was developed. This was the very first time that a time multiplexed etching process for an InP based material system was demonstrated. The developed gas chopping process showed extra ordinary results including high mask selectivity of 15, moderate etch- ing rate, very vertical side walls and a record high aspect ratio of 41. Both the developed etching processes are completely compatible with nano imprint lithography and can be used for low-cost high-throughput fabrication. A large number of broad area laser, ridge waveguide laser, distributed feedback laser, distributed bragg reflector laser and coupled cavity in- jection grating lasers were fabricated using the developed one step etch- ing process. Very extensive characterization was done to optimize all the important design and fabrication parameters. The devices devel- oped have shown excellent performance with a very high side mode suppression ratio of more than 52 dB, an output power of 17 mW per facet, high efficiency of 0.15 W/A, stable operation over temperature and injected currents and a threshold current as low as 30 mA for almost 1 mm long device. A record high modulation bandwidth of 15 GHz with electron-photon resonance and open eye diagrams for 10 Gbps data transmission were also shown.
URI: urn:nbn:de:hebis:34-2012103142064
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