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Title: First-principles electronic theory of non-collinear magnetic order in transition-metal nanowires
Authors: Tanveer, Muhammad
???metadata.dc.subject.swd???: Nanodraht
???metadata.dc.subject.ddc???: 530 - Physik (Physics)
Issue Date: 27-May-2015
Abstract: The structural, electronic and magnetic properties of one-dimensional 3d transition-metal (TM) monoatomic chains having linear, zigzag and ladder geometries are investigated in the frame-work of first-principles density-functional theory. The stability of long-range magnetic order along the nanowires is determined by computing the corresponding frozen-magnon dispersion relations as a function of the 'spin-wave' vector q. First, we show that the ground-state magnetic orders of V, Mn and Fe linear chains at the equilibrium interatomic distances are non-collinear (NC) spin-density waves (SDWs) with characteristic equilibrium wave vectors q that depend on the composition and interatomic distance. The electronic and magnetic properties of these novel spin-spiral structures are discussed from a local perspective by analyzing the spin-polarized electronic densities of states, the local magnetic moments and the spin-density distributions for representative values q. Second, we investigate the stability of NC spin arrangements in Fe zigzag chains and ladders. We find that the non-collinear SDWs are remarkably stable in the biatomic chains (square ladder), whereas ferromagnetic order (q =0) dominates in zigzag chains (triangular ladders). The different magnetic structures are interpreted in terms of the corresponding effective exchange interactions J(ij) between the local magnetic moments μ(i) and μ(j) at atoms i and j. The effective couplings are derived by fitting a classical Heisenberg model to the ab initio magnon dispersion relations. In addition they are analyzed in the framework of general magnetic phase diagrams having arbitrary first, second, and third nearest-neighbor (NN) interactions J(ij). The effect of external electric fields (EFs) on the stability of NC magnetic order has been quantified for representative monoatomic free-standing and deposited chains. We find that an external EF, which is applied perpendicular to the chains, favors non-collinear order in V chains, whereas it stabilizes the ferromagnetic (FM) order in Fe chains. Moreover, our calculations reveal a change in the magnetic order of V chains deposited on the Cu(110) surface in the presence of external EFs. In this case the NC spiral order, which was unstable in the absence of EF, becomes the most favorable one when perpendicular fields of the order of 0.1 V/Å are applied. As a final application of the theory we study the magnetic interactions within monoatomic TM chains deposited on graphene sheets. One observes that even weak chain substrate hybridizations can modify the magnetic order. Mn and Fe chains show incommensurable NC spin configurations. Remarkably, V chains show a transition from a spiral magnetic order in the freestanding geometry to FM order when they are deposited on a graphene sheet. Some TM-terminated zigzag graphene-nanoribbons, for example V and Fe terminated nanoribbons, also show NC spin configurations. Finally, the magnetic anisotropy energies (MAEs) of TM chains on graphene are investigated. It is shown that Co and Fe chains exhibit significant MAEs and orbital magnetic moments with in-plane easy magnetization axis. The remarkable changes in the magnetic properties of chains on graphene are correlated to charge transfers from the TMs to NN carbon atoms. Goals and limitations of this study and the resulting perspectives of future investigations are discussed.
URI: urn:nbn:de:hebis:34-2015052748393
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